Perspective — On the Safety of Aged Lithium-Ion Batteries


The paper considers all open literature on the thermal, electrical, and mechanical abuse response of aged lithium-ion cells and modules to identify critical changes in their behavior relative to fresh cells. It outlines data gaps in aged cell safety, including electrical and mechanical testing and module-level experiments. This publication will help in understanding how the abuse response of aged cells differs from fresh cells, thereby enabling the design of more effective energy storage failure mitigation systems.