We acknowledge the many benefits that accrue from open-science practices, including those articulated in 2018 by the US National Academies of Science, Education, and Medicine1 :

Rigor and reliability. New standards for data and code sharing in fields such as biomedical research and psychology are making it easier for researchers to reproduce and replicate reported work, strengthening scientific rigor and reliability.

Ability to address new questions. Open science allows researchers to bring data and perspectives from multiple fields to bear on their work, opening up new areas of inquiry and expanding opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration.

Faster and more inclusive dissemination of knowledge. The proportion of scientific articles that are openly available is increasing, which accelerates the process of disseminating research and building on results. Open publication also allows broader, more inclusive participation in research and expands the possibilities of productive research collaboration within the United States and around the world.

Broader participation in research. Large-scale projects in fields such as astronomy and ecology are utilizing open data and expanding opportunities for citizen scientists to contribute to scientific advances.

Effective use of resources. Reuse of data in fields such as clinical research is facilitating the aggregation of multiple studies for meta-analysis and allows for more effective testing of new hypotheses.

Improved performance of research tasks. New tools such as electronic lab notebooks enable more accurate recording of research work streams and automate various data curation tasks.

Open publication for public benefit. The belief that the broader public should have access to publicly-funded research and its benefits provides an additional strong rationale for open science. In the case of publicly funded research, the ultimate sponsor is the taxpayer. The public benefits from open science as new knowledge is utilized more rapidly to improve health, protect environmental quality, and deliver new products and services.

Other research policies

Financial Conflict of Interest


  • 1Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. 2018. https://doi.org/10.17226/25116