Funded by the U.S. Fire Administration, the UL's Fire Safety Research Institute (FSRI) has begun the investigation of how to optimize the flow rate and distribution of water needed to prevent flashover in some residential fire scenarios. The goal of this study is to develop the basis for a low cost, retrofittable option for homeowners using the existing domestic water supply in detached single family homes.
Automatic residential fire sprinkler systems, designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes have been shown to save lives and property. It is estimated that less than 11% of all single family homes have a residential fire sprinkler system. Currently only two states, California and Maryland, require residential fire sprinklers to be installed in all new residential occupancies. While NFPA 13D compliant systems can be retrofit into a home, it is an uncommon occurrence in large part due to the expense and effort required. One of the challenges for a retrofit is the cost and space requirements of a water supply if the existing domestic water supply cannot provide enough pressure and flow to support the sprinkler system.
The first phase of this study examined the concept of focusing a spray of water from a ceiling mounted nozzle directly on the burning fuel as opposed to cooling the hot gas and wetting the ceiling and upper wall surfaces. For the scenario tested, a nozzle flowing 6 gpm of water was able to prevent flashover and control the fire ignited on a sofa.
The second phase of this study will examine if a conical water sprays that directly cools the fuel can be scaled up to prevent flashover in larger rooms, while maintaining the reduced water flow demand for the system.
This research was funded by the U.S. Fire Administration.
The goal of this research is to develop the basis for a low cost, retrofittable option for homeowners using the existing domestic water supply in detached single family homes.