Studying the Impact of Fire Attack Methods on Firefighter Safety and Occupant Survival

Air Entrainment Research Report and Online Training Released

April 15, 2019

Air Entrainment Training

The UL Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) released its scientific report and online training program based on Part II of the 2013 U.S. Department of Homeland Security – Federal Emergency Management Agency Assistance to Firefighters Grants Program, “Impact of Fire Attack Utilizing Interior and Exterior Streams on Firefighter Safety and Occupant Survival: Air Entrainment.

The Part II: Air Entrainment research report and online training can provide the fire service with scientific knowledge of the on the impact of air entrainment in hose streams during interior and exterior fire attack on firefighter safety and the survivability of trapped occupants. These resources highlight the research results based on the following objectives:

  • Improve firefighter safety by increasing knowledge of air entrainment by hose streams.
  • Quantify air entrainment of typical fire service nozzles.
  • Develop knowledge of how manufacturer, hose stream type, pressure, flow rate, and nozzle movement effect air entrainment.
  • Develop and disseminate knowledge of how tactical choices such as ventilation, attack method, and nozzle movement effect air entrainment.

“Understanding the concept of air entrainment can aid firefighters in being more effective. Applying these concepts to structural firefighting allows for better control of air during both interior and exterior operations,” said Stephen Kerber, director, Fire Safety.

These tests were conducted without the presence of fire, to gain a fundamental understanding of how hose streams entrain air. Each set of experiments was intended to add to the understanding of air entrainment and pressure from fire service hose streams by evaluating the differences caused by various application methods, hose stream types, nozzle movements, pressures/flow rates, manufacturers, and ventilation configurations.